U.S. Sub-Saharan African Policy and Africa Command (AFRICOM) from the 2005-2015 Perspective* (in Turkish)

2005-2015 Perspektifinden Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin Sahraaltı Afrika Politikası ve Afrika Komutanlığı (AFRICOM)*

Yücel ÖZEL** - Güngör ŞAHİN***
* This article is derived from the unpublished Ph.D. thesis titled as Comparative African Policies of France and the United States of America between 2005 - 2015 written by Yücel Özel and presented to Istanbul University, Social Sciences Institute, Department on International Relations in 2018.
** Ph.D., Ministry of National Defence, Land Forces Command, ORCID: 0000-0003-2591-9219, e-mail: yucelozel@gmail.com.
*** Ph.D. Lecturer, Turkish National Defence University, Atatürk Institute of Strategic Studies (AISS), Department of Strategy and Security Studies, ORCID: 0000-0001-6296-8568 e-mail: gsahin@msu.edu.tr.
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 11.05.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 25.06.2020

Pages 461 – 517 (57)

Abstract
The continent of Africa, which has long been neglected in the international stage for many years, and which has not received the attention it deserves from neither centres of power poles, especially Sub-Saharan Africa has become a centre of interest after the collapse of the bipolar system. The global financial crisis of 2008 intensified the competition the Powers across the world, and enhanced Africa’s attractiveness as a resource-rich continent. After the 2008 crisis, Africa has become one of the geopolitical competition grounds for the United States (US) and rising powers (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and Turkey). After the year 2005, the US began to show real interest in the continent, and with the establishment of US Africa Command (AFRICOM) in 2007, African policy of the USA was identified with AFRICOM. The policies that the United States followed for sub-Saharan Africa between 2005 and 2015, when current theories and analyses of international relations were yet to be fully implemented, have influenced Africa’s transformation and regional balances of power. In the adoption of US foreign policy decisions, domestic and international public opinion is critical; however, the external threat perception based on identity and background in African countries have also been important in determining these policies. After the 2008 Crisis, the US engagements in Africa were carefully selected and governed in such a way to achieve national interests.
Keywords: United States of America (USA), Africa, United States Africa Command (AFRICOM), Sub-Saharan Africa, Whole of Government Approach.

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Somalia - Kenya Maritime Delimitation Dispute (in Turkish)

Somali - Kenya Deniz Sınırı İhtilafı

M. Cem OĞULTÜRK*
* Ph.D., Guest Lecturer, to Turkish National Defence University, ORCID No: 0000-0003-2619-9559, e-mail: cogulturk@gmail.com.
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 04.04.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 20.06.2020

Pages 519 – 553 (35)

Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of land border issues between Kenya and Somalia over the disputes of maritime delimitation problems. The current maritime delimitation dispute between the two countries sharing the same coastline along the Indian Ocean and located in the north-east of the African Continent is due to the divergent interpretation of the two States from the land border as to the appropriate direction of the maritime border. Following the failed negotiations between the two countries on resolving the maritime border dispute, on 28 August 2014, Somalia filed a complaint before the International Court of Justice before Kenya, and the final judgment of the court is awaited. The decision to be announced by the International Court of Justice is also important for countries with similar problems. The study argues that the Somali population living in Kenya is an important factor in Kenya’s approach to the problem. In the study, literature review, content and discourse analysis, which are among the qualitative research methods, were used. In recent years, when considering the point where Somalia-Turkey relations, it is evaluated that the study is important in terms of contributing to the Turkish literature by examining maritime delimitation dispute experienced by Somalia.
Keywords: Border Dispute, Maritime Security, Exclusive Economic Zone, Somalia, Kenya.

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Bulgaria’s Policy towards Syrian Migrants in the Context of Securitization of Migration (in Turkish)

Göçün Güvenlikleştirilmesi Bağlamında Bulgaristan’ın Suriyeli Göçmenlere Yönelik Politikası

Kader ÖZLEM*
* Ph.D. Lecturer, Bursa Uludağ University, Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, Department of International Relations, ORCID No: 0000-0003-4780-2118, E-mail: kaderozlem@uludag.edu.tr.
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 10.05.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 29.08.2020

Pages 555 – 594 (40)

Abstract
The studies on ‘security-migration’ nexus has increased with being perceived as a security threat of the international migrations in the post-Cold War period. The Copenhagen School as a critical security approach in the context of International Relations Theories has contributed to understand the subject how migrations have been securitized specifically. From this point of view, the relation between migration and security policies of Bulgaria is going to be analyzed during period of Syrian Civil War. As known, following the beginning of Syrian Civil War plenty of Syrians have started to migrate towards Western European countries through Turkey. Bulgaria as a transit country has constructed this migration wave that she has never seen before as a security threat by securitizing it rapidly. The main scope of this study is to analyze Bulgaria’s policies towards Syrian migrants and this securitization process from the multidimensional perspective.
Keywords: Bulgaria, Syrian Migrants, International Migration, Security, Securitization.

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The Cold War: American Grand Strategy, Johnson Doctrine and Cyprus (in Turkish)

Soğuk Savaş: Amerikan Büyük Stratejisi, Johnson Doktrini ve Kıbrıs

Kaan Kutlu ATAÇ* - Mehmet Mert ÇAM**
* Ph.D. Lecturer, Mersin University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of International Relations, ORCID: 0000-0003-3435-9073, e-mail: kaanatac@mersin.edu.tr, kkatac@yahoo.com.
** Research Assistant, Turkish National Defence University, Atatürk Institute of Strategic Research (AISS) Department of International Relations and Regional Studies, ORCID: 0000-0002-2703-9808, e-mail: mcam3@msu.edu.tr, mmertcam@hotmail.com.
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 27.08.2019
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 18.08.2020

Pages 595 – 594 (40)

Abstract
The aim of this study is to explain and to frame the American Grand Strategy during the Cold War with special emphasis on the Johnson Administration era. Hence the structure of the study is threefold. Firstly, it addresses the theoretical framework of the American Grand Strategy during the Early Cold War. Secondly, it’s dwell on the parameters that ensure applicability of the Grand Strategy. Accordingly, in the period between 1948-1964, doctrine and concept-based changes, which evolved and provided continuance of the Grand Strategy, will be analyzed with examples. Thirdly, “Cyprus Question” and the US-Turkey tension during the Johnson Administration are to be expound on the perspective of Grand Strategy from the Central Intelligence Agency documents available on the CIA Reading Room.
Keywords: Grand Strategy, Massive Retaliation, Flexible Response, the Johnson Letter, Cyprus.

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The Cyber Security Policy of European Union: Institutionalism or Coherence? (in Turkish)

Avrupa Birliği’nin Siber Güvenlik Politikası: Kurumsalcılık mı Tutarlılık mı?

Fulya KÖKSOY*
* Ph.D. Lecturer, Batman University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of International Relations, ORCID: 0000-0002-6915-5620, e-mail: fulya.koksoy@batman.edu.tr.
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 18.05.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 31.05.2020

Pages 635 – 674 (40)

Abstract
It is seen that information and communication technologies have been intensely integrated into our lives especially in the recent period. The digital age has been changed and transformed at an unavoidable rate, despite it causes many advantages, but it also brings risks and threats. In fact, cyber-attacks pose an important threat to individuals, institutions and states. In this context, an extremely fragile world composition is encountered and the concept of cyber security comes to the fore. As the issue of ensuring cyber security is extremely important, the European Union (EU) is an actor that accepts threats arising from the digital world and tries to develop strategies and policies to ensure the security of the cyber space. Concordantly, the cyber security policies of the European Union, which has sui-generis content in the international system and gained legal status by Lisbon treaty entered into force on 1 December 2009, are analyzed. In addition to this, the equation arises between the European Union and the cyber security phenomenon has been examined for finding out whether the equation is built on institutionalism, which enables the analysis of the EU's cyber security policy on the basis of formal (institutions) and informal (such as rules, procedures) structures, or consistency.
Keywords: European Union, Cyber Security, Historical Institutionalism, Coherence, European Union’s Cyber Security Policy.

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Assessment of Natural Gas Reserves in East Mediterranean with Economy and Security Dimension in Terms of Turkey (in Turkish)

Doğu Akdeniz’deki Doğal Gaz Rezervlerinin Ekonomik ve Güvenlik Boyutuyla Türkiye Açısından Değerlendirmesi

Hüseyin Tamer HAVA*
* Ph.D. Lecturer, Turkish National Defence University, Air Force NCO Vocational School, ORCID: 0000-0002-5104-6688, e-mail: thava@msu.edu.tr, tamerhava@gmail.com.
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 23.04.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 28.08.2020

Pages 675 – 706 (32)

Abstract
Eastern Mediterranean has had geopolitical, geoeconomic and geostrategic significance in every period from past to present. It has never lost its feature of being central in issues such as transportation and trade. Lately, the fact that the significant amount of hydrocarbon reserves increased the potential of the region to become an energy hub and the absence of exclusive economic zones with which all parties have agreed show that the fierce competition for this region will gradually increase. Situated in the global energy mobility as geographical location, Turkey is also a part of this competition. In line with this, of course, Turkey also aims to become a regional energy hub. However, this aim brings with it various risks. Based on this perspective, the results of recent developments in the region will be analyzed with geopolitical, geostrategic, geoeconomic and international security dimensions and solutions will be proposed.
Keywords: Eastern Mediterranean, Energy Resources, International Economy, Political Economy, Security.

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The Impact of Arms Imports on Economic Growth in Turkey (in Turkish)

Türkiye’de Silah İthalatının İktisadi Büyüme Üzerine Etkisi

Şerif CANBAY* - Derya MERCAN**
* Ph.D. Lecturer, Düzce University, Akçakoca Bey Faculty of Political Sciences, Department of Economics, ORCID: 0000-0001-6141-7510, e-mail: serifcanbay@duzce.edu.tr, canbay.serif@gmail.com.
** Ph.D., ORCID: 0000-0003-3011-4423 e-mail: dmercan@gmail.com.
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 18.06.2019
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 04.06.2020

Pages 707 – 734 (28)

Abstract
The effects of arms imports, which is the major defense spending item, on the macroeconomic performances of developing countries is a long-debated issue. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of arms imports on economic growth, which lead to large deficits in the balance of payments of Turkey. Among the defense spending items, the arms imports have the greatest impact potential on the economies of countries. For this purpose, Bounds Testing based on the structural break Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) was performed to determine the impact of the arms import on economic growth, using the 1990-2017 period data of Turkey. According to the test results of the study, no statistically significant correlation was found between the arms imports in Turkey and economic growth in the short run, but it was found that the arms imports have a negative impact on the economic growth in the long run.
Keywords: Arms Imports, Defense Spending, Defense Industry, Economic Growth, ARDL Bound Test.

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