Security Transformation of the Global System between 2009 and 2017: Unipolarity vs. Multipolarity (in Turkish)

2009-2017 Arası Küresel Sistemin Güvenlik Dönüşümü: Tek Kutupluluk Çok Kutupluluğa Karşı

Ferahşan GENÇKAYA*
* Ph.D. Student, Marmara University, Social Sciences Institute, Department of Political Science and International Relations, International Relations, Istanbul, Turkey, ORCID: 0000-0002-7779-5476, e-mail:
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 06.02.2021
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 20.02.2021

Pages 255 – 287 (33)

After the Cold War, the US, as the only superpower in the system, created a hegemonic system through alliances, institutions, and geopolitical negotiations. In this new world order, the US has positioned itself at the center of world politics by taking advantage of its military power, regional alliances, and cultural soft power. In this unipolar system, international norms, human rights, financial systems, and the behaviors of the governments have been largely designed and owned by the US and these practices have spread to the political and legal spheres of other states. However, since the 2000s, new developments in the international system leads to slow but gradual redistribution of the power, which was under US monopoly. The purpose of this study is to examine the important developments that point out to the weakening of unipolarity in the international system between 2009 and 2017, known as the Obama era, with the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. In the study, the transformation process of unipolarity in the international system is discussed in the context of the reflections of the global economic crisis, the rise of China as a global actor, and the prominence of Russia’s global influence. As a result of the study, it has been determined that the structural transition of the international system continues and the Sino-US relations has a competitive potential.
Keywords: International System, Security, Hegemony, the US, Neoclassical Realism.

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Analysis of NATO’s Transformation Policies with Constructivist Approach (1991-2011)* (in Turkish)

NATO Dönüşüm Politikalarının İnşacı Yaklaşımla İncelenmesi (1991-2011)

Adem ÇAKIR**
* This article is derived from the Ph.D. Thesis of the author titled as "Analysis of NATO's Relations with the Constructivist Approach: 1991-2011" and presented to Strategic Studies Institute, War Colleges Command.
** Ph.D., Colonel, 66the Mechanized Brigade Command/Çorlu/Tekirdağ, ORCID: 0000-0002-8099-8880, e-mail:
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 05.06.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 02.04.2021

Pages 289 – 334 (46)

Neo-realism and neo-liberalism, which had been regarded as mainstream theories up until profound changes took place in the 1990s in international structure, considered the international area a domain in which states mainly pursue their strategic interests. In this period, NATO adopted policies that emphasized cooperation, and NATO countries developed collaborative and collective responses to tackle international problems. This approach demonstrated that pure interest-based mainstream theories could not provide enough theoretical framework for the new policies. In the same period constructivism, which is considered among critical theories and emphasizes the interaction of states, offered a different framework than classical theories. In this context, the study tries to understand transformation policies from a constructivist approach perspective. In the study, it has been found out that cooperative security, enlargement, and collective security policies could be understood by the constructivist approach’s following claim; material force is given meaning according to the shared knowledge, norm and values and these could be spread by social interaction; though the success of this understanding depends on the suitable strategic environment.
Keywords: NATO’s Transformation, Constructivism, Cooperative Security, NATO Enlargement Process, Common Security.

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The Place of Crowdsourcing Method in Intelligence Production: Example of Ushahidi Platform (in Turkish)

Kitle Kaynak Yönteminin İstihbarat Üretimindeki Yeri: Ushahidi Platformu Örneği*

Mert Can ATAR**
* This article is derived from Master's Thesis of the author titled as “A New Approach in News Producing: Analysis of Crowd Resourse Management in Journalism” under the supervision of Prof. Meltem BOSTANCI, Ph.D.
** Ph.D. Student, İstanbul University, Department of Journalism, Istanbul, Turkey, ORCID: 0000-0002-2479-8120, e-mail:
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 13.03.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 09.06.2020

Pages 335 – 368 (34)

The main purpose of this study is to determine the new perspectives and application areas brought by the crowdsourcing method to intelligence production. For this, the qualitative research method was used and the question of whether the conceptual infrastructure and application areas of crowdsourcing brought new perspectives to intelligence production and organizational structure was emphasized. The work is divided into two parts in this way. In the first part, the concept of crowdsourcing is examined. For this, the idea of the wisdom of the crowds, which also constitutes the theoretical framework of the study, the interaction of the crowd with technology, and the emergence of Pro-Ams and prosumers, which have become new social classes, are discussed. In the second part, Ushahidi, a news production platform, was defined and its use after the Haiti earthquake in 2010 and the nature of the intelligence it produced was examined.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing, Intelligence, Ushahidi, Wisdom of Crowds, Analysis.

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The Relationship between Defense Expenditures and Economic Freedoms (in Turkish)

Savunma Harcamaları ve Ekonomik Özgürlükler İlişkisi*

Mehmet Samet ERDEM** - Selami SEZGİN***
* This article is derived from the Ph.D. Thesis of the author, Mehmet Samet ERDEM, titled as "Three Articles on Defense Economy" and presented in Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Social Sciences Institute.
** Ph.D. Lecturer, Sinop University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Sinop, Turkey, ORCID: 0000-0001-7344-2166,
*** Prof., Ph.D., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Department of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Eskişehir, Turkey, ORCID: 0000-0002-4604-0601,
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 07.10.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 22.04.2021

Pages 369 – 410 (42)

This paper aimed to examine the relationship between defense expenditures and economic freedom for 110 countries from the Fraser Institute’s Economic Freedoms Index, for the period of 2000-2014 by using panel data analysis. The results of the empirical analysis indicate that there is a significant and negative relationship between defense expenditures and an overall index of economic freedom, size of government, legal systems and property rights, sound money and regulation of credit, labor, and business; but there is no significant relationship for freedom to trade internationally main-component of the index.
Keywords: Defense Expenditures, Economic Freedom, Economic Freedom Index, Economic Growth, Panel Data Analysis.

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A Comparison between the Concepts of Gray Zone and Hybrid War: What is New for International Security?

Gri Bölge ve Hibrit Savaş Konseptleri Arasında Bir Karşılaştırma: Uluslararası Güvenlik Açısından Ne Gibi Yenilikler Vardır?

Fatih AKGÜL*
* Ph.D., Colonel at Supreme Headquarters of Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) Mons/Belgium, ORCID: 0000-0001-9861-9378, e-mail:
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 30.10.2020
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 03.05.2021

Pages 411 – 439 (29)

Albeit the Hybrid War has dominated security studies since 2006, it is also observed that the term ‘Gray Zone’ has increasingly taken part as well in connection with China and Russia after 2015. However, there is also a debate and confusion in the literature over gray zone activities, its relationship with hybrid war, and their implementations. This article aims to discuss and assess the theoretical relationship between these concepts and their implications for international security, by comparing recent Russian and Chinese practices. The article asserts that hybrid and gray zone activities are neither new nor the same, and the Gray Zone Concept emerged as a reflection of the shift in the US strategical attention from Russia to China, and aimed to harmonize US national interests with other Allies’ security concerns. However, it also acknowledges that the concept is real, and should be differentiated and separated from hybrid war.
Keywords: Gray Zone Concept, Hybrid War, Russia, China, the US.

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The Admiral Limpus Mission to the Ottoman Navy within the Context of Strategic Cooperation and Naval Consultancy (1912-1914) (in Turkish)

Stratejik İş Birliği ve Askerî Danışmanlık Kapsamında Osmanlı Donanmasında Amiral Limpus Misyonu (1912-1914)

Dilara DAL*
* Ph.D. İstanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of History, Istanbul, Turkey, ORCID: 0000-0003-3912-0731, e-mail:
This study is mostly supported by the 2219 International Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program provided by Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Institute (Research Project No. 1059B191800794).
Geliş Tarihi / Submitted: 02.02.2021
Kabul Tarihi / Accepted: 04.06.2021

Pages 441 – 479 (39)

This study examines the period of the service of Arthur Limpus, the last British Admiral who entered the service of the Ottoman Government on 25 May 1912 for the reorganization of the Ottoman navy. The assignment process of Admiral Limpus, who was personally selected by the First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill for this duty, was analyzed by scrutinizing the correspondence he exchanged with his predecessors Admiral Gamble and Admiral Williams, and the problems that the British officers encountered concerning their scope of authority in the Ottoman navy were evaluated. By analyzing the reports submitted by Admiral Limpus to the Ottoman Ministry of Navy, it was understood that the Ottoman naval policy was determined as creating a fleet equal to the Austrian navy and stronger than the Greek navy. For this purpose, the Admiral closely followed the dreadnoughts, which were under construction in Britain, ensured the reorganization of the structure of the Ministry of Navy, and organized courses in various fields for the training of officers and soldiers. These processes have been analyzed based on Admiral Limpus’ private documents, which are kept in the Caird Archive of the British National Maritime Museum and used for the first time in this study, and the documents of the Prime Ministerial Ottoman Archive.
Keywords: Admiral Arthur Limpus, Ottoman Empire, Britain, Ministry of Navy, Navy.

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